DATABASE & SQL/PLSQL

Oacle interview Questions And Answer
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What does a control file contains?

Database name

Names and locations of a database's files and redolog files.

Time stamp of database creation.

What is the use of control file?

When an instance of an Oracle database is started, its control file is used to identify the database and redo log files that must be opened for database operation to proceed. It is also used in database recovery. Data Base Administration

What is a database instance? Explain.

A database instance (Server) is a set of memory structure and background processes that access a set of database files. The processes can be shared by all of the users.

The memory structure that is used to store the most queried data from database. This helps up to improve database performance by decreasing the amount of I/O performed against data file.

What is Parallel Server?

Multiple instances accessing the same database (only in multi-CPU environments)

What is a schema?

The set of objects owned by user account is called the schema.

What is an index? How it is implemented in Oracle database?

An index is a database structure used by the server to have direct access of a row in a table. An index is automatically created when a unique of primary key constraint clause is specified in create table command

What are clusters?

Group of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called cluster.

What is a cluster key?

The related columns of the tables are called the cluster key. The cluster key is indexed using a cluster index and its value is stored only once for multiple tables in the cluster.

What is the basic element of base configuration of an Oracle database?

It consists of:
  • one or more data files.
  • one or more control files.
  • two or more redo log files.
  • The Database contains
  • multiple users/schemas
  • one or more rollback segments
  • one or more tablespaces
  • Data dictionary tables
  • User objects (table,indexes,views etc.,)

The server that access the database consists of:

  1. SGA (Database buffer, Dictionary Cache Buffers, Redo log buffers, Shared SQL pool)
  2. SMON (System MONito)
  3. PMON (Process MONitor)
  4. LGWR (LoG Write)
  5. DBWR (Data Base Write)
  6. ARCH (ARCHiver)
  7. CKPT (Check Point)
  8. RECO

Dispatcher User Process with associated PGS

What is a deadlock? Explain.

Two processes waiting to update the rows of a table, which are locked by other processes then deadlock arises. In a database environment this will often happen because of not issuing the proper row lock commands. Poor design of front-end application may cause this situation and the performance of server will reduce drastically. These locks will be released automatically when a commit/rollback operation performed or any one of this processes being killed externally.

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